Indigenous plant extracts and their role in pest management in tea ecosystem
India is the world's second largest producer of black tea. Insects, mites, nematodes, and plant pathogenic diseases all damage the tea plant which severely hampered tea production causing about 10-15% crop loss every year. It would be 100% in extreme circumstances. In India, many synthetic pesticides are commonly employed to control tea pests. The use of an excessive amount pesticides could lead to a number of issues, including the development of resistance, negative impacts on non-target species such as insect predators and parasitoids, disruption of the ecological balance, and the accumulation of pesticide residues on tea leaves. In the international market, there is an increasing demand for organic tea or tea that is pesticide residue free, which influences the export price. Plant extracts having insecticidal qualities contains secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary compounds can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides and these are environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, cost-effective, and renewable options for use in IPM programmes in this context. Biopesticides are natural plant products that can be grown at a minimal cost by planters and extracted using indigenous methods.